The organization is the social agreement pursuing collective objectives that controls its personal presentation, and that has the boundary differing it from the environment. The phrase itself is derivative from Greek word ὄργανον (organon) which means tool. The word is utilized in both every day and technical English in manifold ways.
In social sciences, associations are studied by the researchers from numerous disciplines, the most ordinary of which are economics, sociology, political science, management, psychology and organizational communication. The wide area is usually referred to as the organizational studies, behavior or analysis. Thus, many different theories as well as perspectives exist, a few of which are well-matched, as well as others that are opposing.
- Organization – is a process-related: an entity is being organized (organization as action or task).
- Organization – useful: organization as the function of how entities such as state or businesses authorities are utilized (organization as the lasting structure).
- Organization – institutional: a unit is the organization (organization as a real determined structure in a social context)
In sociology "organization" is stated as designed, harmonized and focused action of the human beings to build or compile an ordinary tangible or insubstantial product. This action is generally framed by official membership and shape (institutional regulations). Sociology differentiates the word organization in designed official and unintentional informal (i.e. impulsively formed) organizations. Sociology examines organizations in the 1st line from the institutional viewpoint. In this manner, association is the lasting arrangement of the elements. These elements plus their actions are decided by set of laws so that a sure task could be satisfied through the system of synchronized distribution of labor.
An organization is described by elements which are a part of it (who belongs to an organization as well as who does not?), its communication (the elements which communicate plus how they communicate?), its independence as well as its regulations of action compared to the outside events. By synchronized and intended cooperation of elements, the organization is capable to resolve the tasks that lie ahead of the abilities of single elements. The cost paid by the elements is restriction of degrees of liberty of elements. Benefits of the organizations are improvement, addition (mixture of dissimilar features), as well as extension. Disadvantages could be inertness (during co-ordination) as well as loss of interaction.
Management is concerned in organization mostly from an instrumental viewpoint. For the company organization is the means to an end to attain its goals. The study of organizations comprises a focus on optimizing managerial arrangement. According to the management science, the majority of human organizations fall approximately into 4 types:
- Pyramids or hierarchies
- Matrix organizations
- Committees or juries